Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Space Simulation: An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Astronauts: Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.