Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Shoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Joint DiseasesRange of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Pacinian Corpuscles: Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Compression of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and structures that make up the coracoacromial arch and the humeral tuberosities. This condition is associated with subacromial bursitis and rotator cuff (largely supraspinatus) and bicipital tendon inflammation, with or without degenerative changes in the tendon. Pain that is most severe when the arm is abducted in an arc between 40 and 120 degrees, sometimes associated with tears in the rotator cuff, is the chief symptom. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes and Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Shoulder Fractures: Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Acromion: The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Clavicle: A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.