Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.