Schools: Educational institutions.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Bullying: Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Menu PlanningUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Library Schools: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).BrazilMinority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.CaliforniaLearning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Underachievement: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.IndiaSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.TurkeyTexasInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.EnglandAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.JapanStaff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Great BritainDental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Scalp DermatosesProfessional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Libraries, MedicalComputer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.MinnesotaDisabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.PennsylvaniaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.
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