Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Reproductive Rights: Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.NicaraguaMaternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.El SalvadorPower (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Preconception Injuries: Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)IndiaPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Religion and SexMarital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)VietnamObstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.PakistanInterpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Gulf War: United Nations' action to intervene in conflict between the nation of Kuwait and occupying Iraqi forces, occurring from 1990 through 1991.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.CambodiaGatekeeping: The controlling of access to health services, usually by primary care providers; often used in managed care settings to reduce utilization of expensive services and reduce referrals. (From BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1999)Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.