Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)United StatesSertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.