Funnel Chest: A developmental anomaly in which the lower sternum is posteriorly dislocated and concavely deformed, resulting in a funnel-shaped thorax.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical: Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)TurtlesCarbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Nobel PrizePhysiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.BelgiumAwards and PrizesMilitary Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)BiographyWorld War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.