Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Pleural DiseasesPleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Hydrothorax: A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Noxythiolin: Local antibacterial that probably acts by releasing formaldehyde in aqueous solutions. It is used for THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION of infected body cavities - bladder, peritoneum, etc. and as a spray for burns.Pneumothorax, Artificial: Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the PLEURAL CAVITY to collapse the lung.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.