Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Necrotic jaws or other maxillofacial skeleton necrosis associated with bisphosphonate use (see BISPHOSPHONATES). Injury, dental procedures, and trauma can trigger the necrotic process.Jaw DiseasesFemur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Maxillary DiseasesHumerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Mandibular DiseasesTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metal-on-Metal Joint Prostheses: Types of prosthetic joints in which both wear surfaces of the joint coupling are metallic.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Dromaiidae: A family of flightless, running BIRDS, in the order Casuariiformes. The emu is the only surviving member of the family. They naturally inhabit forests, open plains, and grasslands in Australia.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment: The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.Adrenal Cortex HormonesTantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Magnetic Field Therapy: The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.