Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Physician Assistants: Health professionals who practice medicine as members of a team with their supervising physicians. They deliver a broad range of medical and surgical services to diverse populations in rural and urban settings. Duties may include physical exams, diagnosis and treatment of disease, interpretation of tests, assist in surgery, and prescribe medications. (from http://www.aapa.orglabout-pas accessed 2114/2011)Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Licensure, Nursing: The granting of a license to practice the profession of nursing.Nurse's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in nursing related to provision of services including diagnosis and treatment.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Physician-Nurse Relations: The reciprocal interaction of physicians and nurses.Nurse-Patient Relations: Interaction between the patient and nurse.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Nursing Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of nursing care.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Nurse Administrators: Nurses professionally qualified in administration.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureGeneral Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Nurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Institutional Practice: Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.Nursing Process: The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Models, Nursing: Theoretical models simulating behavior or activities in nursing, including nursing care, management and economics, theory, assessment, research, and education. Some examples of these models include Orem Self-Care Model, Roy Adaptation Model, and Rogers Life Process Model.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.EnglandProfessional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Nursing Evaluation Research: Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Pediatric Nursing: The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Family Nurse Practitioners: Registered nurses with graduate degrees in nursing who provide care to patients of all age levels, and who focus their efforts on the health care needs of the entire family.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Geriatric Nursing: Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.Pediatric Nurse Practitioners: Registered nurses with graduate degrees in nursing who provide care to pediatric patients who are acutely or critically ill.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Nurse Clinicians: Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Great BritainPhysician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Role: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.United StatesPatient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Pediatric Assistants: Persons academically trained to provide medical care, under the supervision of a physician, to infants and children.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.WalesSigmoidoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the sigmoid colon.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Nursing, Practical: The practice of nursing by licensed, non-registered persons qualified to provide routine care to the sick.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.PennsylvaniaCommunication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Nursing Care: Care given to patients by nursing service personnel.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.CaliforniaRural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Office Visits: Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Specialties, Nursing: Various branches of nursing practice limited to specialized areas.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.London