Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Photoinitiators, Dental: Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Acrylic ResinsAcid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Cermet Cements: Fluoride-releasing restorative materials made by the sintering of metal (usually silver) particles to glass ionomer powder. Glass ionomers are fluoride-releasing cements that are not very durable. Sintering of the metal particles is a means of improving those physical properties that will make the glass ionomer cement more durable.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Tooth DiseasesDental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Fibrin Tissue Adhesive: An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Libraries, DentalDental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Pulp CalcificationFluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Mouth DiseasesStreptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.