Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Cephalopoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Thoracica: A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Loligo: A genus of SQUID in the family Loliginidae, superorder DECAPODIFORMES, with a spindle-shaped body. They are well-studied, common inshore squids of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, but their various species are taxonomically unresolved.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Pectinidae: A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Receptors, Invertebrate Peptide: Cell surface receptors for invertebrate peptide hormones or neuropeptides.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pacific OceanPhysiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Cucumaria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS possessing the primitive radial configuration of podia in all five ambulacral areas.Hirudo medicinalis: A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Pasteuria: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family Pasteuriaceae. It is transmitted via soil or waterborne SPORES.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Bromelia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Tritonia Sea Slug: A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Echinostoma: A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Tardigrada: A phylum of microscopic ecdysozoan invertebrates, closely related to ARTHROPODS. Members exhibit anabiosis and cryptobiosis, dormant states where metabolic activity is reduced or absent, thus making them tolerant to extreme environmental conditions. They are distributed worldwide and most are semi-aquatic.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPalaemonidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.Pecten: A genus of scallops in the family PECTINIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The shell is usually radially ribbed.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Isochores: Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)BelizeImpatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Ascoviridae: A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 22.214.171.124.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
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