Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Intra-Articular Fractures: Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Viscosupplements: Viscoelastic solutions that are injected into JOINTS in order to alleviate symptoms of joint-related disorders such as OSTEOARTHRITIS.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Viscosupplementation: A therapeutic treatment typically involving INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTIONS of HYALURONIC ACID and related compounds. The procedure is commonly used in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS with the therapeutic goal to restore the viscoelasticity of SYNOVIAL FLUID, decrease pain, improve mobility and restore the natural protective functions of hyaluronan in the joint.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.ArthritisSynovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Joint DiseasesArthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Radius FracturesFracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gold Colloid, Radioactive: A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Arthroscopes: Endoscopes for visualizing the interior of a joint.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Tibial FracturesFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Mud Therapy: The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Jogging: Running at a low rate of speed. It can be done as a means of conditioning or for general health and well being.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Joint Loose Bodies: Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Humeral FracturesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Folate Receptor 2: A subtype of GPI-anchored folate receptors that is expressed in PLACENTA and hematopoietic cells.Rats, Inbred LewSubtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Ganglion Cysts: Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Shoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Channel Islands: A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Cementoplasty: Injection of BONE CEMENTS into bone to treat bone lesions.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Hydrarthrosis: Accumulation of watery fluid in the cavity of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Chondromatosis, Synovial: Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular: Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Olecranon Process: A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.DislocationsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Mice, Inbred C57BLFemur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Tranexamic Acid: Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.ShoesCarpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.