Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductases, NAD-Dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. This class of enzymes performs a catabolic role in microorganisms such as Pseudomonas mevalonii where it oxidatively acetylates MEVALONIC ACID to form 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A and NADH.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Mevalonic AcidCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Coenzyme AAcyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 188.8.131.52.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RhodanineHeptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Ribonucleotide ReductasesImidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.FluorobenzenesOxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11 and EC 18.104.22.168.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 126.96.36.199.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 188.8.131.52 was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Cytochrome Reductases5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.PhthalazinesRibonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.Galactitol: A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.QuinolinesMethionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.Trimetrexate: A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 184.108.40.206 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 220.127.116.11 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 18.104.22.168 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.ThiosemicarbazonesOxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Dihydropteridine Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Thioredoxin Reductase 1: A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.