Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.History of MedicineInternal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.HistoryHistory, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Philosophy, MedicalPlants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Disaster Medicine: Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Medicine in ArtCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Great BritainHistory of NursingPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Molecular Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Nobel PrizeDrug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.EuropeMedical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.JapanPhysical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Famous PersonsAcupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Medicine, Tibetan Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.