Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.