Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.ReadingHealth Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)ArkansasHealth Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Educators: Professionals who plan, organize and direct health education programs for the individual, groups and the community.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Safety-net Providers: Providers that by mandate or mission organize and deliver a significant level of health care and other health-related services to the uninsured, Medicaid recipients, and other vulnerable patients.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.United StatesSpeech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Primary Care Nursing: Techniques or methods of patient care used by nurses as primary careproviders.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.VermontHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.North CarolinaUrban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.FloridaNursing Evaluation Research: Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hospital Bed Capacity, 300 to 499Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Multi-Ingredient Cold, Flu, and Allergy Medications: A broad category of multi-ingredient preparations that are marketed for the relief of upper respiratory symptoms resulting from the COMMON COLD; ALLERGIES; or HUMAN INFLUENZA. While the majority of these medications are available as OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS some of them contain ingredients that require them to be sold as PRESCRIPTION DRUGS or as BEHIND-THE COUNTER DRUGS.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Pelvic Floor Disorders: Injury, weakening, or PROLAPSE of the pelvic muscles, surrounding connective tissues or ligaments (PELVIC FLOOR).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.PennsylvaniaEuropean Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Library Materials: Print and non-print materials collected, processed, and stored by libraries. They comprise books, periodicals, pamphlets, reports, microforms, maps, manuscripts, motion pictures, and all other forms of audiovisual records. (Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary, 4th ed, p497)Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Patient Medication Knowledge: Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Literacy: The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.New York CityCurriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.TennesseeMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.MississippiPatients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.TexasRehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.
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