Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.EnglandGreat BritainPractice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.LondonScotlandDrug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Medical Receptionists: Individuals who receive patients in a medical office.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.WalesEducation, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Practice Management: Business management of medical, dental and veterinary practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Office Visits: Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.IrelandRural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Northern IrelandRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.DenmarkSpecialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Nurse's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in nursing related to provision of services including diagnosis and treatment.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.BelgiumRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.NorwayPhysicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.GermanyMorbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)United StatesCommunity Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.After-Hours Care: Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Remuneration: Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Office Management: Planning, organizing, and administering activities in an office.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Nurse-Patient Relations: Interaction between the patient and nurse.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Group Practice: Any group of three or more full-time physicians organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of health care services, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Physicians' Offices: The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.Nursing, Practical: The practice of nursing by licensed, non-registered persons qualified to provide routine care to the sick.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.