Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Kobuvirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose type species Aichi virus, causes gastroenteritis in humans.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Dimenhydrinate: A drug combination that contains diphenhydramine and theophylline. It is used for treating VERTIGO, MOTION SICKNESS, and NAUSEA associated with PREGNANCY.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Astroviridae: A family of RNA viruses with two genera: MAMASTROVIRUS and AVASTROVIRUS. They cause GASTROENTERITIS in humans and also infect other vertebrates.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Parechovirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Swimming PoolsChild Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.JapanNeisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Diapers, Infant: Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
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