Ephrin-A5: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.Ephrin-A1: An ephrin that was originally identified as the product of an early response gene induced by TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS. It is linked to the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR and binds EPHA2 RECEPTOR with high affinity. During embryogenesis high levels of ephrin-A1 are expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; SALIVARY GLANDS; and INTESTINE.Ephrin-A3: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR; EPHA5 RECEPTOR; EPHA6 RECEPTOR; EPHA7 RECEPTOR; and EPHA8 RECEPTOR. It is found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.Receptor, EphA4: An eph family receptor found in variety of tissues including BRAIN. During embryogenesis, EphA4 receptor exhibits a diverse spatial and temporal patterns of expression suggesting its role in multiple developmental processes.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.Receptor, EphA3: An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.Receptor, EphA1: The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Ephrin-B1: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Receptor, EphA8: An eph family receptor found exclusively in BRAIN. EphA8 receptors may play a role in the axonal guidance of a subset of tectal commissural NEURONS.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Ephrin-A4: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in variety of adult tissue such as KIDNEY; LUNG; COLON and OVARY. During embryonic development, ephrin-A4 is expressed in the HIPPOCAMPUS and CEREBRAL CORTEX. It binds preferentially to ephA receptors (EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS) with the exception of the EPHA1 RECEPTOR.Cell Physiological Processes: Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptor, EphB3: An eph family receptor found in a number of tissues including BRAIN; LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; INTESTINE; and HEART. During embryogenesis EphB3 receptor is expressed at high levels in the brain.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
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