Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)United StatesEconomic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Great BritainAccidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.MiningInsurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.FinlandNursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.SwedenFamily Leave: The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.LondonConstruction Materials: Supplies used in building.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.EnglandRespiratory Tract NeoplasmsOccupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Sexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.WeldingSingle-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.CaliforniaHealth Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Symptom Assessment: Evaluation of manifestations of disease.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.DenmarkNaval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Office Nursing: Nursing practice limited to an office setting.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.JapanVeterans: Former members of the armed services.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Respiratory Tract DiseasesAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.PaperEmployer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.