Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp CalcificationDental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.OdontoblastsDental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp Devitalization: The destruction of the vitality of the pulp of the tooth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p243)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dentinal Fluid: The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Porphyromonas endodontalis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Dentin SensitivityMultipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Tooth DiseasesPulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.DNA Degradation, Necrotic: The random catabolism of DNA accompaning the irreversible damage to tissue which leads to the pathological death of one or more cells.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.