Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.United StatesState Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Great BritainAdolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.EnglandNursing Services: A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Capitation Fee: A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Risk Sharing, Financial: Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.ScotlandHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.