Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.NADP Transhydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.