Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Central Venous Catheters: Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.ThiadiazinesAntisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Micrococcaceae: A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Home Infusion Therapy: Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Corynebacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).