Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.GeeseDucksColumbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Animals, ZooGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Canaries: Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Cockatoos: Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.WingSexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Proventriculus: A thin-walled, glandular stomach found in birds. It precedes the gizzard.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Bornaviridae: A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.
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