Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Edwardsiella ictaluri: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its nonmotility. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Aeromonas salmonicida: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.RNA Virus InfectionsSalmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Flavobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Myrsinaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Aeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Palaemonidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.Saprolegnia: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.Pectinidae: A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Dysidea: A genus of SPONGES in the family Dysideidae, in which all skeletal fibers are filled with detritus.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Totiviridae: A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.IdahoEutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ulva: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Ulvaceae. Commonly know as sea lettuces, they grow attached to rocks and KELP in marine and estuarine waters.Mediterranean SeaPhotobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Furunculosis: A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)AnguillaDecapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Vibrionaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mytilus edulis: A species of mussel in the genus MYTILUS, family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA, known as the common mussel. It has a bluish-black shell and is highly edible.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Oxolinic Acid: Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Novirhabdovirus: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
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