Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Test Anxiety Scale: A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Performance Anxiety: Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Hypochondriasis: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)