Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Transfer, Gly: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific: A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Arg: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Ile: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying isoleucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).RNA, Transfer, Ser: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Methionine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA, Transfer, Tyr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.PseudouridineAmino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Transfer, Pro: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Cys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).RNA, Transfer, Thr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying threonine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Gln: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Transfer RNA Aminoacylation: The conversion of uncharged TRANSFER RNA to AMINO ACYL TRNA.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Val: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Isopentenyladenosine: N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.UridineRNA, Transfer, His: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Aminoacylation: A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lysine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Glycine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Threonine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates threonine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.3.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Tryptophan-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tryptophan with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.2.Glutamate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Valine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates valine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.9Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Tyrosine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.RNA, Transfer, Asn: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Arginine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates phenylalanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.20.Serine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates serine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.11.Isoleucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.5.