Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.