American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Hospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.United StatesMarketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).