Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)BenzaldehydesCatechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Benzaldehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Acids, Acyclic: Carboxylic acids that have open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.EsterasesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.