2-Acetolactate Mutase: An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 18.104.22.168.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 126.96.36.199.Phosphoglycerate Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 188.8.131.52.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Bisphosphoglycerate Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from C-3 of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to C-2 of 3-phosphoglycerate, forming 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. EC 184.108.40.206.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Sulfonylurea CompoundsIsoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Pontederiaceae: A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Most species are perennials, native primarily to tropical America. They have creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and leaves in clusters at the base of the plant or borne on branched stems. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds, or a one-seeded winged structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.CobamidesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.