Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Proteus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Nitrofurantoin: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the diagnostic imaging of the renal cortex.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.Urinary Catheters: Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Staphylococcus saprophyticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Antibody-Coated Bacteria Test, Urinary: Fluorescent antibody technique for visualizing antibody-bacteria complexes in urine. The presence or absence of antibody-coated bacteria in urine correlates with localization of urinary tract infection in the kidney or bladder, respectively.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Amdinocillin Pivoxil: Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.Succimer: A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.Pyelitis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and KIDNEY CALICES where urine is collected before discharge, but does not involve the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS) where urine is processed.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Providencia: Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Mice, Inbred CBANitrofurazone: A topical anti-infective agent effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is used for superficial WOUNDS AND INJURIES and skin infections. Nitrofurazone has also been administered orally in the treatment of TRYPANOSOMIASIS.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sulfamethizole: A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.Trimethoprim Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Urology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the urologic patient.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Prostatism: Lower urinary tract symptom, such as slow urinary stream, associated with PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA in older men.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Uroplakin Ia: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Netilmicin: Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.NitrofuransAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radioimmunosorbent Test: Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Mice, Inbred C3HActinomycetaceae: A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.