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Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Phosphites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eflornithine: An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Triose-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A type C phospholipase specific for GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. It plays a role in the breaking of GPI MEMBRANE ANCHORS.Melarsoprol: Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.