Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Lie Detection: Ascertaining of deception through detection of emotional disturbance as manifested by changes in physiologic processes usually using a polygraph.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Suggestion: The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Ethical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.United StatesAdvertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Philosophy, MedicalBioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Dermoscopy: A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.