Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION by the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) which travels in the root of the MESENTERY and crosses over the DUODENUM. The syndrome is characterized by the dilated proximal duodenum and STOMACH, bloating, ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, and VOMITING. Often it is observed in patient with body casts after spinal surgery.Duodenostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Enterostomy: Creation of an artificial external opening or fistula in the intestines.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome: Ischemia or infarction of the spinal cord in the distribution of the anterior spinal artery, which supplies the ventral two-thirds of the spinal cord. This condition is usually associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS of the aorta and may result from dissection of an AORTIC ANEURYSM or rarely dissection of the anterior spinal artery. Clinical features include weakness and loss of pain and temperature sensation below the level of injury, with relative sparing of position and vibratory sensation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1249-50)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.