Schools: Educational institutions.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Great BritainSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.BrazilHealth Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.IndiaElectronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Communicable DiseasesAdolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.EnglandPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.New York CityAdministrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
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