Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Medical Records, Problem-Oriented: A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.United StatesEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Medical Records Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the creating, care, storage and retrieval of medical records. It also provides statistical information for the medical and administrative staff.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Great BritainAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.EnglandAttitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Almanacs as Topic: Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Incunabula as Topic: Books printed before 1501.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.BrazilPhysiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.CaliforniaComputer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Cookbooks as Topic: Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Caricatures as Topic: Portraying in a critical or facetious way a real individual or group, or a figure representing a social, political, ethnic, or racial type. The effect is usually achieved through distortion or exaggeration of characteristics. (Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)ComputersPhysicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Medical Record Administrators: Individuals professionally qualified in the management of patients' records. Duties may include planning, designing, and managing systems for patient administrative and clinical data, as well as patient medical records. The concept includes medical record technicians.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Biobibliography as Topic: A biography which includes a list of the writings of the subject person.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.MinnesotaEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic: Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)WashingtonInternational Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.ScotlandSchools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.