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Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.