Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.History of MedicineHospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.National Health Insurance, United StatesGovernment: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Philosophy, MedicalCatholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Nobel PrizeSocial Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.United StatesBudgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
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