Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Phenylketonuria, Maternal: A condition occurring in untreated or partially treated females with PHENYLKETONURIA when they become pregnant. This may result in damages to the FETUS, including MICROCEPHALY; MENTAL RETARDATION; congenital heart disease; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; and CRANIOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES. (From Am J Med Genet 1997 Mar 3;69(1):89-95)Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Phenylpyruvic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of phenylpyruvic acid which has the general formula C6H5CH2COCOOH, and is a metabolite of phenylalanine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Microcephaly: A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Homogentisic AcidCongenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.