Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Ammonia-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 188.8.131.52.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Histidine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 184.108.40.206.Petroselinum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Tricholoma: A large genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They are most often found in mountain and northern forests.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Rehmannia: A plant genus of the family Rehmanniaceae. Members contain catapol, rehmannin and ALKALOIDS.CinnamatesApiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.PhenylpropionatesFabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.CobamidesNelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 220.127.116.11.Dendrobium: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Urocanic Acid: 4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.