Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Permissiveness: The attitude that grants freedom of expression and activity to another individual, but not necessarily with sanction or approval.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Education, Nonprofessional: Education and training outside that for the professions.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Single-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Individuation: A process of differentiation having for its goal the development of the individual personality.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Play Therapy: A treatment technique utilizing play as a medium for expression and communication between patient and therapist.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Sensitivity Training Groups: A group of people who meet in an unstructured setting to learn about themselves, interpersonal relationships, and group processes and about larger social systems.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Frustration: The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Divorce: Legal dissolution of an officially recognized marriage relationship.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Only Child: Child who has no siblings.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Negativism: State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.