African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.AfricaMedicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.History of MedicineClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.United StatesPhysical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Philosophy, MedicalRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Disaster Medicine: Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Medicine in ArtResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.EuropeNorth CarolinaTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.GeorgiaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.ChicagoCercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.South CarolinaProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)MississippiPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Molecular Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.Great BritainPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.AlabamaCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Nobel PrizeForensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)