Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Advance Care Planning: Discussions with patients and/or their representatives about the goals and desired direction of the patient's care, particularly end-of-life care, in the event that the patient is or becomes incompetent to make decisions.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Resuscitation Orders: Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Masculinity: Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Advance Directive Adherence: Compliance by health personnel or proxies with the stipulations of ADVANCE DIRECTIVES (or similar directives such as RESUSCITATION ORDERS) when patients are unable to direct their own care.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Femininity: Female-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cognitive Dissonance: Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Mice, Inbred C57BLCourtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.United StatesPersonal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Colinus: A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.