Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Calcium Fluoride: Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.United StatesDental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Commonwealth of Independent StatesBoron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Potentilla: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain procyanidins and TANNINS.United States Agency for International Development: An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Couples Therapy: Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.ToluidinesDecision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Professional Review Organizations: Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physician Self-Referral: Referral by physicians to testing or treatment facilities in which they have financial interest. The practice is regulated by the Ethics in Patient Referrals Act of 1989.