Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Philodendron: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. As a houseplant it sometimes poisons children and animals.Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Sorbus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Setaria Plant: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.Arum: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Anagallis: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains anagallosides, which are molluscacidal triterpenoid saponins.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Psychotria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain psychotridine and brachycerine (indole alkaloids).Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Hosta: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.