Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Neuropilin-1: Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Ephrin-A5: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Semaphorins: A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Eye ProteinsActin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Chimerin 1: A GTPase activating protein that is specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is expressed primarily in the brain and may be involved in signal transduction. The alternatively spliced form of CHIMERIN 1 (alpha-2 Chimerin) contains an additional src homology domain and is expressed in both the brain and testes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Neurilemma: The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.