Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Radius FracturesOsteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Rib FracturesMandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Intra-Articular Fractures: Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Colles' Fracture: Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Periprosthetic Fractures: Fractures around joint replacement prosthetics or implants. They can occur intraoperatively or postoperatively.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Clavicle: A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.DislocationsThoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.AxisSpinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Jaw Fractures: Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Tibial FracturesSaccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Volar Plate: A thick, fibrocartilaginous ligament at the metacarpophalageal joint.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Humeral FracturesCervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Hemiarthroplasty: A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Olecranon Process: A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Monteggia's Fracture: Fracture in the proximal half of the shaft of the ulna, with dislocation of the head of the radius.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Early Ambulation: Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Fractures, Open: Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)AcetyleneCarbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Bone Diseases, MetabolicTooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.